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Creatine (Creapure®)

  • (Creapure®), the 100% pure benchmark creatine
  • Made in Germany
  • Increases strength and muscle mass
  • Improves intellectual performance
  • Powder or capsules
The purest creatine for muscle strength Find out more
  • Brain
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  • Bulking
  • Longevity
  • Muscle gain
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  • Recovery
  • Strength
  • Capsules
  • Powder
  • CREA009000
  • 120 Capsules
  • 400 Capsules
  • 800 Capsules
  • 350 g
  • 1 kg
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Optimal consumption date: 01/2026
Price unit label /
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Dosage: 5g (5 scoops, 7 capsules or 1,25 teaspoon) throughout the day.
  • Receive a free product with orders over 70€
  • Free delivery on orders over 60€



Take 5* g (5 scoops, 7 capsules or 1,25 teaspoon) throughout the day.
*For France, the recommended dose is 3g as part of a treatment programme.

What is creatine?

Creatine is an amino acid derivative that is naturally present in the body. It is very useful and very popular among athletes as it boosts power take-off and performance.

What are the benefits of creatine?

Boosted performance: strength and muscle mass
Creatine is a supplement that is best known for increasing your strength and lean muscle mass. Its benefits begin to take effect very quickly, even if it's your first time taking it.

Impacts on the brain and intellectual performance
Creatine is a source of energy (ATP) for our brain cells. After several weeks of oral consumption, creatine in the brain increases by about 10% (3), resulting in improved intellectual performance.

Numerous health benefits of creatine
The clear benefits of this supplement have been reported for a wide range of diseases, including myopathies, neurodegenerative diseases, cancers, rheumatic diseases, and type 2 diabetes.
For further details on the benefits of Nutrimuscle (Creapure®) creatine, visit the Find out more section.

1. Creatine increases physical performance in short, intensive exercise sessions. You can benefit from creatine with a daily intake of 3g.

2. Proteins contribute to the development and maintenance of muscle mass.

About (Creapure®) Creatine

  • Creatine (Creapure®) is manufactured in a pharmaceutical laboratory in Germany from German raw materials: cyanamide and sodium sarcosinate; it is subjected to numerous tests throughout its manufacture.


Ingredients of Nutrimuscle's Creatine (Creapure®)

(Creapure®) Creatine powder:

  • Creatine monohydrate (Creapure®).

(Creapure®) Creatine capsules:

  • Creatine monohydrate (Creapure®)
  • Beef gelatin capsule

Nutritional values of Nutrimuscle's Creatine (Creapure®)

Nutritional values per 100 g : 

  • Protein : 0g
  • Carbohydrates : 0g
  • Fat: 0g
  • Calories : 0kcal

Nutritional composition of Nutrimuscle's Creatine (Creapure®)

100 g1 capsule5 g7 capsules
Proteins0 g0 g
0 g0 g
Carbohydrates0 g0 g
0 g0 g
Lipides0 g0 g
0 g0 g
Calories0 kcal0 kcal
0 kcal
0 kcal
0 kJ
0 kJ
0 kJ
0 kJ
  • 1 capsule contains 0.7 g of (Creapure®) creatine monohydrate
  • 7 capsules contain 4.9 g of (Creapure®) creatine monohydrate
  • 1 scoop contains 1 g of (Creapure®) creatine monohydrate
  • 5 scoops of 5 g of (Creapure®) creatine monohydrate

Usage tips

Who is Nutrimuscle (Creapure®) creatine for?

Nutrimuscle (Creapure®) creatine is for:

  • Athletes, to improve their performance
  • Inactive people, for its numerous health benefits

When should I take Nutrimuscle (Creapure®) creatine?

Assimilation begins quickly after consuming 1 gram of Nutrimuscle creatine (Creapure®):

  • Within 10 minutes, the first molecules of creatine reach the bloodstream
  • The maximum plasma level is reached within 2 hours, with a 60% increase in creatine
  • Values return to normal after 3-4 hours, which means it's time to top up on Nutrimuscle creatine (Creapure®).

With meals or protein snacks
Take 1 to 2 capsules of Nutrimuscle creatine (Creapure®) with meals and protein snacks.

After a training session
Add 2 capsules of Nutrimuscle creatine (Creapure®) to your post-exercise recovery drink.

During a diet
Nutrimuscle creatine (Creapure®) is effective in combating the muscle wasting and fatigue associated with calorie restriction. It is therefore highly recommended for those following a diet.

How do I take Nutrimuscle (Creapure®) creatine?

Spreading out your doses
As suggested by the pharmacokinetics of creatine, Nutrimuscle creatine (Creapure®) should be taken every 3 to 4 hours to maintain high blood levels throughout the day and avoid shortages that would weaken muscle recovery. In addition, research shows that creatine assimilation is best when numerous small doses are taken rather than a single large dose per day.
Creatine retention is 13% higher when 1 g is ingested 20 times rather than 5 g four times. In 5 days, this results in a muscle gain of 1.7 kg with 20 daily intakes compared to 700 grams with four doses.

Best used after a workout
After training, creatine transporters are more active than they are at rest, which promotes the integration of creatine into your muscle cells (1).

Take creatine with meals
The simultaneous consumption of carbohydrates and proteins promotes the assimilation and proper use of creatine. It should therefore not be taken on an empty stomach, but rather in the middle of or just after a meal.

Advice for women
Women do not respond to creatine supplementation in the same way as men due to hormonal differences (they produce more oestrogen and less testosterone than men).

  1. Avoid trying to take high doses of creatine.
  2. Start with low doses (500 mg per day, divided into 2 or 3 doses).
  3. Increase gradually over the weeks (+ 500 mg per week).
  4. Do not exceed the total recommended dose of 2 or 3 g per day (2).
  5. Creatine takes longer to take effect for women, so be patient (3-4).

Interactions with other Nutrimuscle products

Synergies between supplements

  • Nutrimuscle creatine (Creapure®) improves the assimilation of protein.

Adverse reactions between supplements

  • No noted adverse reactions.

Scientific references

  • (1) Schoch RD. The regulation and expression of the creatine transporter: a brief review of creatine supplementation in humans and animals. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2006 Jun 23;3:60-6.
  • (2) Rawson ES. Low-dose creatine supplementation enhances fatigue resistance in the absence of weight gain. Nutrition. 2011 Apr;27(4):451-5.
  • (3) Fukuda DH. The effects of creatine loading and gender on anaerobic running capacity. J Strength Cond Res. 2010 Jul;24(7):1826-33.
  • (4) Eckerson JM. Effect of creatine phosphate supplementation on anaerobic working capacity and body weight after two and six days of loading in men and women. J Strength Cond Res. 2005 Nov;19(4):756-

Find out more

Purity of raw materials guaranteed

It's rare for consumers to have access to the names of the suppliers of the raw materials that go into the supplements they consume. However, this is essential to ensure product traceability.
At Nutrimuscle, we only use the very best ingredients, the quality of which is guaranteed by world leaders: AlzChem AG produces Nutrimuscle's creatine (Creapure®) monohydrate at its HACCP- and ISO9001-certified factory in Germany.
What matters most to us is the quality of the raw materials, your health, and the results you achieve using our nutritional supplements.

High-quality products

Nutrimuscle creatine (Creapure®) is manufactured in a pharmaceutical laboratory in Germany using German raw materials: cyanamide and sodium sarcosinate. It is subject to numerous tests throughout the manufacturing process.
Chromatographic examinations reveal the presence of several toxic impurities in poor quality creatines: creatinine, dihydrotriazine, thiourea, or dicyandiamide, a substance involved in the synthesis of melanin.
All of these toxic components are absent from Nutrimuscle's creatine monohydrate (Creapure®).

Creatine: research and misconceptions

Creatine and cancer

A recent study showing the benefits of creatine on the liver questions the alleged lack of data regarding the rumor that creatine may promote the development of cancer cells (25). A second study, published a few days later, answers this question perfectly (26).

Men received creatine supplementation for 1 month. The researchers measured the level of carcinogens (heterocyclic amines) before and after the creatine cure.

Creatine had no effect on the level of these carcinogenic precursors. On the other hand, doctors show that the quality of food plays a direct role on the level of heterocyclic amines. For several years, some doctors, with supporting research, have recommended taking creatine to help fight certain forms of cancer (27-28).

Creatine and kidney function
A claim that is frequently attributed to creatine on the internet or on television is that it is harmful to the kidneys. Is this assertion founded? What does medical research show us that has studied the impact of creatine on our kidneys?

There is a test result from one (and only one) patient with genetically defective kidneys that involves creatine (1). This person had had serious kidney problems for over eight years, that is, long before he took creatine.

Dr Kalra believes, without being sure, that taking creatine by this person could have made this patient's case worse (1). This in itself is good news, because if all the things that can be faulted with creatine are, perhaps, to make the case of a person who has had diseased kidneys for years worse, it is not. not very negative, given the million users of creatine around the world in 20 years of marketing to athletes.

Professors Greenhaff (the world's leading creatine specialist) and Poortmans (the specialist in kidney involvement in athletic activity) reacted immediately, both disagreeing with Professor Kalra's assumptions about the impact. kidney creatine (2-3).

For them, creatine poses no danger to the kidneys. This was shown a year earlier in a study by Dr Poortmans (4). The latter shows no harmful effects for high doses of oral creatine in healthy people. Poortmans will then conduct further research on the same subject. It will not detect any effect of creatine on the kidneys, either in the short term (a few weeks) or in the long term (five years of use) (5).

From this debate, many studies will still result concerning the impact of creatine on the kidneys. The reproduction of this study over more than five years by another team of doctors also demonstrates the safety of creatine in the long term (6).

Despite extensive research by doctors, there is no scientific study demonstrating the side effect of creatine on the kidney of sportsmen (7-8-9) (10-11-12).

These conclusions are obtained even in patients with kidneys in very poor condition. In a person with only one kidney, taking creatine does not cause any problems (13).

In diabetics, and therefore people with very fragile kidneys, creatine does not cause a problem either (14). Likewise, in rats with already defective kidneys, creatine does not worsen the ailment (15).

Creatine and erection
A rumor that is circulating on the internet states that if creatine makes muscle, it would prevent erections.
This rumor is flowing into the imagination of a teenager new to bodybuilding who was interviewed on prime-time TV. This shocking statement was then peddled on various bodybuilding forums. As a beginner, we can not blame him for not knowing anything, neither in bodybuilding, nor in supplementation and even less in the physiological mechanisms which control the erection.

But, what is it really?

By studying the mechanisms of erection, we understand that creatine is only a source of energy that maintains the erection. Creatine is a reserve of phosphates which is used for the synthesis of ATP (one of the energy sources of the penis). When ATP molecules are consumed as fuel for erection, the result is the disappearance of a phosphate: ATP then becomes ADP. In order to be usable again, ADP must find a phosphate to become ATP again and so on. What provides this phosphate are our phospho-creatine reserves.

During erection, ATP is consumed massively (17-18). The body must draw on its stores of phospho-creatine. Without the latter, fatigue would appear quickly and the erection could not be maintained for lack of energy. So if creatine doesn't trigger an erection, it's role is to maintain it. It is therefore she who provides endurance. To say that taking creatine prevents an erection is physiological nonsense, since, on the contrary, creatine promotes the maintenance of an erection.

Creatine and doping
It all started with the simultaneous deaths of three college wrestlers in the United States. Wrestlers must become dangerously dehydrated before a competition to try to place themselves in the lowest possible weight category: we stop drinking, we do the sauna, we take diuretics and laxatives.

Result: many health problems and sometimes deaths.

As in the United States, the prestige of the university is largely based on its sports results, it was necessary that the university in question explain the death of these 3 athletes without leaving feathers.

It was therefore necessary to find a cause of their deaths which clears the university. Creatine was chosen as the scapegoat. They would have been killed by creatine. The press picked up on the case and started to spill over and over about creatine and its so-called side effects. The use of creatine was quickly equated with doping.

The big problem with this story is that according to Dr. Greenhaff, the world's foremost creatine specialist, two of the three wrestlers have never taken creatine in their lives (2).

Did they die looking at the jar that belonged to the third?

This does not, however, prevent the French press from reporting this affair which does not smell good, forgetting of course to mention the revelations of Dr. Greenhaff.

But things don't stop there. During a ski competition, journalists, who wondered how to interpret the fact that the skiers had gained so much muscle mass in record time, were told by coaches that it was creatine that had caused such a explosion.

Similar comments have been made in other sports such as football. If creatine is an effective supplement that allows lean muscle gain that can range from 3 to 10 kilos of muscle, the fact remains that many cite it as the cover-sex of their doping.

So here again is the creatine associated with doping for hypocritical reasons. It did not take less for some to demand the outright ban on creatine.

Do not confuse creatine and creatinine
Creatinine (not to be confused with creatine) is a marker that indirectly reflects kidney health. When the kidneys work well, they expel creatinine that the body generates by breaking down creatine. Creatinine is therefore a metabolic waste. It does not accumulate in our body as long as our kidneys are healthy.

When the creatinine level rises, this suggests that the kidneys are not doing their job and that kidney function may be compromised. We can only really find out by doing other more specific examinations.

Following the use of poor quality creatine (therefore contaminated with high doses of creatinine), doctors have detected an abnormal rise in creatinine level in a bodybuilder. Further analysis, however, did not reveal any kidney damage.

So even if the creatinine level is high in a creatine user (especially with low-cost creatine, since quality creatine does not contain creatinine), this does not mean that creatine is damaging the kidneys (24). It simply skews the results of toxicological tests.

However, creatinine is a toxic substance. Its accumulation is not good for overall health. One more reason to be adamant about the quality of your creatine supplement.

Creatine and caffeine interaction

There is no doubt that creatine increases physical performance. The same is true for caffeine. We see that performance increases even more when we combine the consumption of creatine with the intake of caffeine before training.

This is obvious! But, as it is fashionable to scare people, we have been left behind an obsolete study, 20 years old and whose conclusions have fizzled out.
In this study, the effects of creatine on muscle strength were reportedly inhibited by caffeine (19-20).

This study was quickly forgotten, because the first studies on creatine which revealed its beneficial effects on the muscles were carried out while this molecule had been absorbed with the help of a caffeinated drink. In addition, the studies showing a negative interaction have been carried out under external electrical stimulation, which is far from the type of effort that should be deployed in the weight room or in the field. Subsequent studies have not confirmed such negative interactions. Rather, they emphasize the synergy that occurs with these two supplements (21-23).

It should also be noted that this study of negative creatine-caffeine interactions focuses exclusively on interference from a strength point of view, not on muscle gain. No inhibition has been shown on muscle mass gain.

So the theories that explain that creatine makes you take in water, that caffeine makes you lose again, which would prevent creatine from making you gain muscle, are just pure invention of the commercial imagination of people who are paid for the number of lines they write.

So, no need to add confusion where there shouldn't be: it is quite possible to take caffeine when consuming creatine, and without suffering negative consequences.

Benefits of Creatine (Creapure®) Nutrimuscle in more detail

Performance increase: strength and muscle mass

Nutrimuscle Creatine (Creapure®) builds strength by:

  • Increasing the stocks of phosphocreatine (intracellular energy reserve);
  • Accelerating the speed of ATP synthesis;
  • Struggling with lactic acid.

Creatine is a supplement that is best known for increasing strength and lean muscle mass. Its beneficial effects begin to manifest themselves very quickly, even without prior loading.

This is what shows a new study carried out in sportsmen. During 2 days, they received daily 5 g of creatine combined with 0.5 g of maltodextrin per kilo of body weight.

Maltodextrin is used in conjunction with creatine to ensure perfect absorption of the latter, as well as its rapid transport to the muscles. Before and after these two days, these athletes were subjected to muscle power tests. These consisted of performing 6 sprints of 10 seconds each at maximum speed, interspersed with one minute of rest. In comparison with the placebo, the mean maximum muscle power during sprints increases by 4% with creatine (14).

Creatine and protective effect on health
More surprising is the protective effect on the health of the athlete noted following the use of creatine. For 7 days, high-level cyclists received 20 g of creatine monohydrate daily. The latter increases anaerobic performance by more than 9% (15). However, the violent effort represented by these bicycle sprints precipitates iron molecules from red blood cells in the blood.

Namely, all heavy metals, which circulate freely in the body without a protective molecule, generate a strong pro-oxidant effect for the cells. By promoting the production of uric acid, creatine induces a partitioning of these iron molecules.

Thus, the overall pro-oxidant effect of sports activity is reduced by 30% compared to a placebo. Creatine is therefore not just a performance boosting supplement. It also protects the integrity of the athlete.

Nutrimuscle Creatine (Creapure®) increases muscle mass by:

  • Stimulating protein synthesis (anabolism);
  • Boosting the natural secretion of anabolic hormones: IGF-1 (Insulin-like Growth Factor-1), MGF (Mechano Growth Factor), GH (growth hormone) and insulin (1);
  • Multiplying the number of stem cells present in the muscles.

Compared to a placebo, Creatine (Creapure®) Nutrimuscle can increase your rate of progression tenfold. For example, scientific studies show that a 12-week course of creatine in addition to strength training allows:

  • A muscle gain of 4.3 kg (twice as much as in placebo);
  • An hypertrophy of muscle fibers three times greater than with placebo;
  • A gain in strength of 40% greater than that obtained with placebo (2).

Role in endurance and strength

In many sports, especially endurance sports, we are looking for ways to increase muscle strength and endurance while avoiding weight gain, including in the form of muscle.

Indeed, the heavier we are, the more difficult and painful it is to move quickly. A new study has determined the minimum dose of creatine that can increase performance without building muscle (13).

For 6 weeks, men and women received a low dose of creatine (0.03 g per kilogram of body weight per day, or a daily dose ranging from 1.7 to 2.9 g). By the end of the study, users' weight had not fluctuated, but their performance had improved greatly.

Thigh strength was assessed before and after the 6 weeks. Compared to placebo, performance increases by 7% after a second series of tests, thanks to creatine.

It increased by 9% after the third and fourth series. For the final series, it increased by 11%. So we see that the more the muscles tire, the more effective creatine is. On the other hand, this study shows that when looking for a gain in strength associated with a gain in muscle mass, it is necessary to take at least 3 grams of creatine per day.

Promoted muscle recovery

Creatine (Creapure®) Nutrimuscle speeds up recovery by:

  • Minimizing muscle catabolism;
  • Protecting cells against the harmful effects of free radicals, thanks to its antioxidant action;
  • Promoting the storage of muscle glycogen.

Impact of creatine on the brain and intellectual performance
Creatine is a source of energy (ATP) for brain cells. After oral use for several weeks, brain creatine increases by about 10% (3), resulting in improved intellectual performance.

It is essentially the protective effect on the brain that explains why creatine increases longevity, as has been clearly demonstrated in animals. For half of their lives, mice have been supplemented with creatine. Compared to a placebo, creatine:

  • Extends healthy lifespan by 9%;
  • Reduces brain degeneration by 22% (11).

This is explained by the ability of creatine to activate protective genes in the nervous system.
Thus, creatine is an excellent natural supplement for people having to provide intellectual efforts, such as students, for example. In the elderly, it is now recommended to improve quality of life and as a brain protector (12).

Creatine increases intellectual performance. If intellectual work tires out, it is because energy reserves are depleted. It is by increasing these reserves that creatine improves intellectual performance (4). For 5 days, the daily intake of 8 g of creatine by men and women increases the accuracy of the results of mathematical calculations chained together for 30 minutes by 10% (5). The superiority of creatine compared to placebo is explained by a slower onset of brain fatigue.

Memory is also dependent on energy reserves, and therefore on the level of creatine in the brain (4-6). In vegetarians under 40, a 6-week course of 5 g of creatine increases memory test scores by 38% (4). For 2 weeks, men and women (average age 76) received 5 g of creatine, 4 times a day (total daily dose: 20 g). Their short-term memory test scores increased by 15 to 75% and their long-term memory test scores by 18% (7).

With age, more and more ATP, and therefore creatine, is consumed by the brain for the same task. As this increase in needs is not compensated by an increase in the concentration of cerebral ATP, a decrease in intellectual performance necessarily results. There is a correlation between the level of brain creatine and performance on various cognitive tests. In both men and women (mean age, 77), a 14% decrease in brain creatine level corresponds to a more than 5% decrease in intellectual function (8).

Abnormally low levels of brain creatine are also found in people who are depressed or stressed. This explains why taking creatine helps fight depression and stress (9).

Beyond this energetic aspect of creatine, the latter also has a substantive action, which will protect the brain from degeneration (10). Creatine maintains brain health by promoting the elimination of substances toxic to neurons such as glutamate, homocysteine, cholesterol, free radicals, etc. Significant decreases in brain creatine concentration are noted with the onset of a mental illness such as Alzheimer's. Clinical trials of creatine to treat Alzheimer's are now in phase 2, with a 50% improvement in the condition of patients (10).

Creatine is a source of energy for our brain. Any creatine deficiency leads to mental disorders. Some of these disorders are curable with external creatine intake (supplementation) from an early age (17).

Healthy Creatine Applications
Scientists have studied the widespread application of oral creatine supplementation in treating disease and maintaining health (16). The obvious benefits of this supplement have been reported in a wide range of diseases, including myopathies, neurodegenerative diseases, cancers, rheumatic diseases, and type 2 diabetes. Additionally, after hundreds of published studies and reviews million creatine supplements, it maintains an excellent safety profile.

New uses for creatine have emerged in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases associated with aging. On average, 30% of muscle mass is lost by age 80, while muscle weakness remains a vital cause of loss of independence in the elderly population.

Creatine has been studied in the treatment of congestive heart failure, gyro-atrophy, insulin insensitivity, certain cancers and high cholesterol. Regarding the brain, creatine has been shown to have antioxidant properties, reduce mental fatigue, protect the brain against neurotoxicity, and improve neurological disorders, such as depression and bipolar disorder.

Creatine is of value in age-related diseases such as Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, long-term memory impairment associated with the progression of Alzheimer's disease, and d 'Stroke.

Medical studies have shown that supplementation with creatine in pregnant women helps the baby's brain development and protects him from many deformities as well as from the deleterious actions of toxic substances transmitted by the mother (19).

In young children, a 12-week course of creatine has no side effects on their health (18). This study reinforces those, carried out in adults, which show the safety of creatine on health.

1. Creatine increases physical performance in short, intensive exercise sessions. You can benefit from creatine with a daily intake of 3g.

2. Proteins contribute to the development and maintenance of muscle mass.

Scientific references

  • (1) Kalra PA. Renal dysfunction accompanying oral creatine supplements. The Lancet. 1998. 351. pp. 1252.
  • (2) Greenhaff-P. Renal dysfunction accompanying oral creatine supplements. The Lancet. 1998. 352. pp. 233.
  • (3)Poortmans JR. Renal dysfunction accompanying oral creatine supplements. The Lancet. 1998. 352. pp. 234.
  • (4) Poortmans JR. Effect of short-term creatine supplementation on renal response in men. Eur J Appl Physiol. 1997. 76: pp. 566.
  • (5) Poortmans JR. Long-term oral creatine supplementation does not impair renal function in healthy athletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1999 Aug;31(8):1108-10.
  • (6) Mayhew DL. Effects of long-term creatine supplementation on liver and kidney functions in American college football players. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2002 Dec;12(4):453-60.
  • (7) Farquhar WB. Effects of creatine use on the athlete's kidney. Curr Sports Med Rep. 2002 Apr;1(2):103-6.
  • (8) Gualano B. Effects of creatine supplementation on renal function: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2008 May;103(1):33-40.
  • (9) Pline KA. The effect of creatine intake on renal function. Ann Pharmacother. 2005 Jun;39(6):1093-6.
  • (10) Robinson TM. Dietary creatine supplementation does not affect some haematological indices, or indices of muscle damage and hepatic and renal function.Br J Sports Med. 2000 Aug;34(4):284-8.
  • (11) Yoshizumi WM. Effects of creatine supplementation on renal function. J Herb Pharmacother. 2004;4(1):1-7.
  • (12) Kreider-R. Long-term creatine supplementation does not adversely affect clinical markers of health. Med Sci Sports Excercise. 2000. 32. p: S134.
  • (13) Willis J. Protein and creatine supplements and misdiagnosis of kidney disease.BMJ. 2010 Jan 8;340:b5027.
  • (14) Gualano B. Creatine supplementation does not impair kidney function in type 2 diabetic patients: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2011 May;111(5):749-56.
  • (15) Taes YE. Creatine supplementation does not affect kidney function in an animal model with pre-existing renal failure. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2003 Feb;18(2):258-64.
  • (16) Edison EE. Creatine synthesis: production of guanidinoacetate by the rat and human kidney in vivo. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2007 Dec;293(6):F1799-804.
  • (17) Levin RM. Metabolic responses of rabbit corpus cavernosum tissue to various forms of stimulation. Int J Impot Res. 1995 Sep;7(3):187-94.
  • (18) Levin RM. Metabolic studies on the rabbit corpus cavernosum. J Androl. 1993 Sep-Oct;14(5):329-34.
  • (19) Vandenberghe K. Caffeine counteracts the ergogenic action of muscle creatine loading. J Appl Physiol 1996 Feb;80(2):452-7.
  • (20) Hespel P. Opposite actions of caffeine and creatine on muscle relaxation time in humans. J Appl Physiol . 2002 Feb;92(2):513-8.
  • (21) Doherty M. Caffeine is ergogenic after supplementation of oral creatine monohydrate. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2002 Nov;34(11):1785-92.
  • (22) Lee CL. Effect of caffeine ingestion after creatine supplementation on intermittent high-intensity sprint performance. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2011 Aug;111(8):1669-77
  • (23) Chia Lun Lee CL. Effect of creatine plus caffeine supplements on time to exhaustion during an incremental maximum exercise. European Journal of Sport Science Volume 12, Issue 4, 2012 pages 338-346
  • (24) Williamson L. How the use of creatine supplements can elevate serum creatinine in the absence of underlying kidney pathology. BMJ Case Rep. 2014 Sep 19;2014.
  • (25) Barcelos RP. Creatine and the Liver: metabolism and possible interactions. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2015 Jul 21. [Epub ahead of print]
  • (26) Tavaresdos Santos Pereira R. Can creatine supplementation form carcinogenic heterocyclic amines in humans? J Physiol. 2015 Jul 6. [Epub ahead of print]
  • (27) Patra S. A short review on creatine-creatine kinase system in relation to cancer and some experimental results on creatine as adjuvant in cancer therapy. Amino Acids. 2012 Jun;42(6):2319-30.
  • (28) Norman K. Effects of creatine supplementation on nutritional status, muscle function and quality of life in patients with colorectal cancer--a double blind randomised controlled trial. Clin Nutr. 2006 Aug;25(4):596-605.

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