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Glossary

Acido-basic
The acido-basic balance is a key notion in maintaining an optimal state of health, and is, to a large extent, linked to quality of diet.
Acidosis
A state of acidosis indicates that the body's pH is too acidic and may result in pathologies.
Adipose
Consisting of fat.
Agglomerate
To group together in a compact or coherent mass, to give off a unified appearance.
Alcaline
Refers to a liquid or food that has a basifying (anti-acidic) action, and that increases the pH.
Amino
Amino acids are the molecules that combine to make proteins, thanks to their connected structure consisting of bonds known as peptide bonds.
Aminogram
Chart showing the composition of a protein consisting of amino acids. This is a very important chart, which must be consulted so as to avoid getting into difficulty.
Anabolic hormone
These are the first hormones that come to an athlete's mind when discussing doping. They include steroids, beta blockers and peptide hormones.
Anabolic response
Anabolism refers to all of the chemical reactions that bring about the molecular synthesis of a particular organism. It is anabolism that enables the building of muscle. In contrast, catabolism refers to a series of reactions that breaks down molecules.
Anabolism
Anabolism refers to all of the chemical reactions that bring about the molecular synthesis of an organism. The term muscular anabolism is used when a muscle gets bigger and becomes HUGE!
Anticatabolic action
An action that prevents muscle breakdown, also known as catabolism (for example, the act of consuming proteins).
Arginase
This enzyme is involved in the urea cycle and serves as a catalyst for the hydrolysis of arginine into urea and ornithine.
Bacillus
Contains living microorganisms (bacteria, yeasts...) with a beneficial effect on the organism that ingests them (probiotics).
Biological hydrolysis
Hydrolysis can be realised either chemically or enzymatically. It is a process of digestion.
Carcinogenicity
Ability to cause or promote cancer.
Chlorogenic acid
Chlorogenic acid is a phenolic-type organic acid that can be found in high concentrations in coffee, and in low quantities in some vegetables such as carrots or artichokes. It is renowned for its natural antioxidant, antiviral, bactericidal and fungicidal properties.
Chromatographic
Chromatography is a physico-chemical method used to separate the various substances present in a mixture.
Deleterious
Toxic, dangerous to health.
Diuretic
A diuretic is a substance that causes an increase in urinary secretion and enables the stimulation of the kidneys, allowing them to eliminate more electrolytes and water via the urine.
Dorsal spine
Series of articulated vertebrae that supports the entire skeleton.
Endocrine balance
The endocrine system consists of all of the organs (endocrine glands) that possess a hormone-secreting function, along with other endocrine cells dispersed outside of these endocrine organs. A good balance is associated with good health.
Enzymatic hydrolysis
A chemical reaction, catalysed by hydrolase-type enzymes, during the course of which a water molecule must be involved, and which culminates in the splitting of a compound. In a manner of speaking, it is a process of digestion.
Fat oxidation
Process enabling the "burning off" of fats, by using them as a means by which to supply energy.
Genomics
Genomics is a discipline of modern biology. It studies the function of an organism, of an organ, of a cancer etc. on the level of the genome, rather than limiting itself to the scale of a single gene.
Glutathione
Glutathione is a protein that is naturally produced by the body. It is a tripeptide, consisting of three amino acids: glutamate (glutamic acid), cysteine and glycine. It is an immune stimulant.
Hepatic
Relating to the liver
Hyaluronic acid
Hyaluronic acid is a natural component of the dermis, which acts as a sponge in capturing and holding water, thus enabling the effective hydration of the skin and the reduction of wrinkles. Unfortunately, its quantity and quality reduce with age, however, it can be increased using supplements, in particular collagen.
Hydro-soluble
A term referring to anything that is soluble in water. In the case of vitamins, it refers to those in the B (B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B9, B12) and C groups.
Hydrolysate
For organic substances such as proteins, hydrolysis is equivalent to the cutting of the peptide bonds between the various amino acids of which they are formed.
Hydrolysed
For organic substances such as proteins, hydrolysis is equivalent to the cutting of the peptide bonds between the various amino acids of which they are formed.
Hypertrophy
Tissue or organ hypertrophy is the increase in volume of a tissue or organ, such as the muscles, due to cellular hypertrophy or hyperplasia.
Hypoglycaemic
Causing hyperglycaemia (reduced or low blood sugar).
Inhibit
To reduce or prevent a chemical or psychological reaction.
Inhibitor
Something that inhibits, slows down a process, impedes.
Inulin
A carbohydrate related to starch, present in the elecampane root and other vegetables, and which offers a prebiotic effect.
Ionising
Producing ions.
Ionising radiation
Electromagnetic or particle radiation capable of producing ions, whether directly or indirectly, when passing through matter.
Lactium
Lactium® is a natural molecule derived from milk. More precisely, it is a milk protein hydrolysate, which has been filtered in order to isolate just a single bioactive peptide. This decapeptide, alpha-casozepine, was discovered on account of the fact that it is this that is responsible for calming and inducing sleep in babies who have just drunk milk.
Lipo-soluble
A term that refers to something that is soluble upon contact with lipids, I.e, fats. In terms of vitamins, this applies to vitamins A, D, K and E.
Maltodextrin
Maltodextrin is a sugar produced as a result of the hydrolysis of a starch.
Neurotransmission
Transmission of a nerve impulse via a chemical mediator  (or neurotransmitter).
Pathogenic
Capable of causing a disease.
Pharmacoproteomics
The term "proteomics" refers to the science that studies proteomes, that is, all of the proteins within a cell, an organelle, a tissue, an organ or an organism, at a given moment and under given conditions.
Pidolic acid
Pidolic acid is a protein that acts as a glutamate antagonist (an amino acid that behaves as a central nervous system stimulant), which explains the relaxing effect of this protein.
Polyphenol
Polyphenols constitute the thousands of components present in plants, and most notably in fruits and vegetables. These micronutrients possess antioxidant properties that are very effective in counteracting reactive oxygen species.
Polyunsaturated
An unsaturated fatty acid is a fatty acid that contains one or more carbon-carbon double bonds.
Probiotic
Containing living microorganisms (bacteria, yeasts...) with a beneficial effect on the organism that ingests them.
Protein
A large, complex molecule consisting of amino acids, an essential component of organic matter and of living things.
Q10
The coenzyme Q10 (CoQ19) is an enzyme that governs the production of energy in our cells. That is to say, it is essential to the proper functioning of our bodies. In reality, it plays a role comparable to that of a vitamin.
Sudoral
The sudoral, or sweat glands, are specialised organs (in this case glands) that secrete sweat and, in some cases, hormones or pheromones.
Sweetener
A sweetener is a product or substance with a sugary flavour.
Tocopherols
These are one of the components of vitamin E, and they exist in alpha, beta, gamma and delta form.
Tocotrienols
Rare forms of vitamin E that offer antioxidant protection that is 40 to 60 times greater than that provided by classic E vitamins.
Transgenic
A genetically modified organism, or GMO, is a living organism of which the genetic heritage has been modified by means of human intervention. According to European definitions, these modifications must be as a result of genetic engineering.
Triglycerides
These form the body's main energy reserve and are thus beneficial if you wish to keep fit, provided that their levels in the blood remain within the normal range. Good quality triglycerides can be found in omega-3.
Trimethylamine
Trimethylamine is a colourless flammable gas that emits an intense fishy odour, even when heavily diluted. At its highest concentrations, it's scent is more reminiscent of the smell of chemically bonded ammonia.
Valine
Valine is one of the 9 amino acids essential for human beings, and is found in proteins and BCAAs.
Vascular calcification
Formation of plaques (deposits of cholesterol, immune cells and connective tissue) within the vascular walls.
Vasodilator
A substance that enables the dilation of the blood vessels, i.e. the widening of the vessels by means of the relaxation of the smooth muscles in their walls.
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